The Yankees slugger hit the drive in the fourth inning off Red Sox left-hander Jon Lester, connecting for a solo shot that cleared Fenway Park's Green Monster in left field and cut New York's deficit to 6-2.
"Any time you [tie] a name like that, it's special," Rodriguez said. "Unfortunately tonight it didn't come in a winning performance."
It was the third home run of the season for Rodriguez, who has also surpassed Mark McGwire (584) this year. The long ball ended a personal homerless drought spanning 61 at-bats for the slugger, who started his big league career in 1994 with the Mariners and has also played for the Rangers.
"Home runs, I never look at that as a big issue," Rodriguez said. "All I want to do is always think small, take my walks and keep being productive. Home runs, I think, will always be there."
Rodriguez had gone 15 games between home runs from April 21 to May 8, which was tied for the fourth-longest stretch of his career and his longest since he endured a 16-game drought from July 20 to Aug. 6, 2009.
A-Rod entered the 2010 season 17 home runs shy of becoming the seventh player to hit at least 600 home runs. After Robinson, the next name on the all-time list is Sammy Sosa (609).
A lifetime .294 hitter, Robinson played for the Reds, Orioles, Dodgers, Angels and Indians in a Hall of Fame career that spanned from 1956-76.
Bryan Hoch is a reporter for MLB.com. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.